Unleash the Magic of Fireworks

How to make roman candle firework

Dive into the captivating world of Roman Candle, a blend of history, science, and art. Our team of experts employs cutting-edge technology and traditional methods to craft these spectacular traditional fireworks. Discover the intricate role each component plays in the creation process – from the cardboard tube that houses the black powder and stars, to the fuse that ignites the sequence of shots.  

Roman Candle Fireworks Production Equipment

Roman Candle Fireworks Tube Cutting Machine

Boost your Roman Candle production with our innovative Tube Cutting Machine. This high-performance machine is designed to enhance efficiency and precision, ensuring the creation of top-quality Roman Candle tubes. With its accurate slicing capacity, it guarantees consistency in tube size, which is crucial for the performance of the firework.

The Tube Cutting Machine stands out for its high productivity, enabling manufacturers to meet demand without compromising on quality. Whether you need to produce a variety of fireworks for a grand aerial display or a large batch of the same type, this machine can handle it all.

Designed with user convenience in mind, this machine is easy to operate. From loading the cardboard tubes to setting the desired length, each step is straightforward and hassle-free. Plus, it’s easy to maintain, meaning it will continue to deliver reliable performance over time.

Whether you’re producing traditional Roman Candle or experimenting with new compositions and effects, our Tube Cutting Machine is an invaluable tool. It’s all about streamlining the process, enhancing safety, and delivering a product that will light up the sky with spectacular displays.  

Powder Filling Machine

Experience the power of precision and efficiency with our Powder Filling Machine, tailored specifically for Roman Candle fireworks production. This machine revolutionizes the way you handle chemical black powder, one of the most crucial components in creating spectacular firework displays.

Forget about tedious and time-consuming manual filling methods. Our Powder Filling Machine has been engineered to streamline your production process. It fills each cardboard tube swiftly and accurately, ensuring consistency in every Roman Candle you produce.

What sets our machine apart is its ease of use. Even if you’re new to pyrotechnics, you’ll find the operation straightforward. The machine is also easy to maintain, adding to its longevity and reliability. This means not only does it save you time, but it also reduces costs in the long run.

Our Powder Filling Machine is built with high-grade materials, ensuring it can withstand the rigors of pyrotechnic production. Whether you’re a small local manufacturer or a large-scale producer, this tool is designed to enhance your production process and propel your business to greater heights.

Powder filling machine for Roman candle fireworks production


Unveiling the Art of Creating Roman Candle Fireworks

A Roman candle is a traditional type of firework that ejects one or more stars or exploding shells. The stars are loaded into a tube, also known as a “candle”. When the fuse is lit, it ignites the lift charge, propelling the star out of the tube.

Roman candles come in a variety of sizes, with different numbers of stars. Each star is individually packed with a delay fuse and its own propellant, allowing them to fire off at regular intervals. The stars themselves can come in many colors and may create different effects, such as popping, crackling, or trailing sparks.

Despite their popularity, Roman candles have been associated with various safety risks, including the potential for starting fires and causing injury. They are illegal in some regions due to these safety concerns. Always ensure that you follow local laws and safety guidelines when using Roman candles or any other type of firework.

Making a Roman candle, a type of firework, is an intricate process that involves careful preparation and assembly. Here’s a detailed guide on how to make a homemade Roman candle:

  1. Tube Preparation: Cut a cardboard tube to the desired length. This will serve as the body of your Roman candle. Reinforce the tube with masking tape to prevent splitting under pressure.

  2. Fuse Installation: Install a visco fuse into one end of the tube. This will be responsible for igniting your pyrotechnic composition.

  3. Insertion of Clay Plug: Insert a clay plug at the bottom of the tube. This will seal off the tube and provide a base for the fireworks stack.

  4. Filling with Black Powder and Star: Add a layer of black powder, followed by a ‘star’ or ‘comet’ (a small chemical-packed pellet that produces the aerial display). These components form the basic composition of the firework.

  5. Adding Delay Composition: A delay composition, often made from sawdust and black powder, is then added. This creates a pause between each shot, allowing each star to explode individually in the sky.

  6. Repeating the Process: Repeat the filling process for the desired number of shots. Each layer of black powder and star is separated by a clay plug, creating a stack within the tube.

  7. Sealing the Tube: Once all the layers are loaded, seal the top of the tube with tissue paper. This prevents any sparks from prematurely igniting the stack.

  8. Finishing Touches: Bundle the Roman candles together and tape them to a stake. This ensures they launch upwards when ignited, creating a spectacular aerial display.

Safety is paramount when constructing homemade pyrotechnics. Always follow guidelines and take necessary precautions to prevent injury. Remember, the length of the tube, the type of firework, and the composition can greatly vary, affecting the display and bang of each Roman candle.

The simplest Roman candles come with a single bore, but you can experiment with multiple tubes for a more complex display. Just remember, each additional tube increases the pressure during launch, so ensure your packaging can withstand it.

This project is designed specifically for adults with prior pyrotechnic experience. If you’re a novice in the world of fireworks, we recommend starting with simpler projects such as crafting homemade smoke bombs or sparklers.

It’s crucial to be aware of your local laws concerning Roman candle fireworks. These types of fireworks might be restricted or completely banned in some areas. If that’s the case, refrain from making or setting off a Roman candle firework.

Safety is paramount when handling any type of firework, including Roman candles. Never ignite a Roman candle while holding it in your hand or aim it at anyone or anything. Remember, these are not toys – they are pyrotechnic devices that can cause serious injury if not handled properly.

Exercise sound judgment and adhere to safe practices when constructing and igniting fireworks. Always ensure you are sober and clear of flammable materials, pets, people, or structures. It’s also recommended to use a long fuse for ignition to keep a safe distance, and to have a water source nearby in case of a fire.

When making a Roman candle, you’ll typically need paper tubes which will hold the stars (small pyrotechnic devices that produce the colored sparks). The stars are separated by layers of black powder (the lift charge), which propels the stars into the air when ignited. Each tube is then sealed with clay or a similar material to prevent the fire from escaping the bottom of the tube.

Remember to always use good quality materials for your Roman candles to prevent damage and ensure a beautiful display. This includes using sturdy cpaper tubes that won’t split under pressure, and high-quality black powder for the lift charge.

Lastly, always store your finished Roman candles in a safe, dry place away from any sources of heat or ignition. And when it’s time to set them off, tape them to a stake or other secure object to ensure they shoot upwards and not towards spectators.

Remember, the goal is to create a spectacular aerial display that lights up the sky, not cause harm or damage. So always prioritize safety above all else when making and using Roman candles.

A Roman candle is a type of firework that operates in a very specific way. Let’s delve into the intricate workings of it:

  1. Structure: The body of a Roman candle, also known as a tube, contains launching powder and single or multiple pyrotechnic ‘stars’ or pellets. These stars can be grain-like or cylindrical in shape.

  2. Operation: When ignited, the Roman candle launches a single colored pearl, flower, or sound effect from one or more tubes. This can be done in a regular, sequenced manner, launching multiple colored pearls, flowers, or sound effects.

  3. Handheld Roman Candles: These Roman candles are designed with a handheld part for easy use. They have single or multiple stars arranged sequentially in the tube. You hold these in your hand to ignite them.

  4. Insertable Roman Candles: These Roman candles are designed with an insertion device. The tube contains single or multiple stars arranged in sequence. These can be inserted into soft ground or specific devices for ignition.

  5. Fixed Roman Candles: These Roman candles have single or multiple stars arranged sequentially in the tube, and are fixed in a specific apparatus for launching.

  6. Roman Candle Combinations: These products are made by combining two or more Roman candles. This allows for a larger display and variety of effects when ignited.

In all these variations, the principle remains the same: the launching powder ignites, generating gas. The pressure from this gas propels the star out of the tube, creating the desired effect. This process repeats until all the stars have been launched from the tube.

A Roman candle is a type of firework that is used in various events such as weddings, festivals, celebrations, and other related activities to enhance the richness, entertainment, and atmosphere of different scenarios. It consists of several components, each contributing to its overall functioning and effect.

Here’s a detailed breakdown of the composition of a Roman candle:

  1. Outer Tube (1): The outer casing of a Roman candle, which houses multiple units of Roman candles (2). This tube can be made of paper or plastic.

  2. Roman Candle Units (2): Each unit contains a launch tube (3) inside which are multiple launch units (5). These units are evenly distributed and adhered inside the outer tube (1), ensuring the stability of the connections.

  3. Launch Tube (3): Each launch tube has a plug (4) at the bottom and multiple launch units (5) arranged sequentially above it. The launch tubes can be made of paper.

  4. Plug (4): The plug, which is formed by curing mud, seals the bottom of the launch tube. This ensures that the Roman candle does not burst from the bottom during ignition, enhancing safety.

  5. Launch Units (5): Each launch unit contains an ignition powder layer (6), an isolation layer (7), and a smoke pearl (8). The isolation layer is positioned above the ignition powder layer, with the smoke pearl filled between the two.

  6. Ignition Powder Layer (6): The ignition powder layer ignites to generate gas, which applies pressure on the smoke pearl and propels it out of the tube.

  7. Isolation Layer (7): This layer, preferably made of sawdust, separates adjacent launch units while also absorbing some of the shock from the ignition of the powder layer.

  8. Smoke Pearl (8): The smoke pearl releases colored smoke when ignited. Its composition can vary based on the desired color effect. It can be made from a blend of potassium chlorate, dye, cassava powder, resin, and optionally sulfur powder.

  9. Fuse (9): Each launch tube contains a fuse that connects all the ignition powder layers. The fuses from all the launch tubes connect at the top of the outer tube with the main fuse (10).

  10. Main Fuse (10): The main fuse is lit to ignite all the individual fuses simultaneously, leading to the ignition of the ignition powder layer in each launch unit.

  11. Handle (11): The bottom of the outer tube may have a handle with a groove (12) for holding onto during ignition, further enhancing safety.

When the Roman candle is ignited, the main fuse lights up all the individual fuses. This, in turn, ignites the ignition powder layer in each launch unit, propelling multiple smoke pearls out of the tubes simultaneously, creating a spectacular display. The design of the Roman candle, with its double-layer protection on the sides and plug at the bottom, ensures that the firework doesn’t burst from the sides or bottom, making it safe to use.

Black powder, also known as gunpowder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of saltpetre (potassium nitrate), sulfur, and charcoal. The sources of these components are organic in nature – saltpetre is often found in bat guano, sulfur can be mined from volcanoes, and charcoal comes from wood.

The reason why black powder is used in a Roman candle, or indeed any firework, is due to its ability to rapidly deflagrate, or burn, when ignited. The rapid burning of black powder produces a large amount of gases, which expands and pushes against the surrounding air, creating a loud bang and a bright light. This makes it ideal for use in fireworks, where the objective is to create a visually and audibly impressive display.

In a Roman candle, the black powder serves two main purposes.

  • First, it acts as the propellant charge that shoots out the stars or other effects. When the black powder ignites, it rapidly burns and produces gas. This gas builds up pressure within the firework until it’s enough to propel the star out of the tube.
  • Second, black powder is used as part of the delay composition between the stars. Once a star has been shot out, the firework needs time to reset before launching the next one. A carefully measured amount of black powder provides this delay, burning slowly enough to give the next star time to fall into position.

So, in summary, black powder is used in a Roman candle because of its properties as a fast-burning, gas-producing compound, which makes it great for propelling stars into the sky, and as a slow-burning compound when needed for timing the launch of subsequent stars.


  1. Lifting Charge (Black Powder): 75% Potassium Nitrate (KNO3), 15% Charcoal (Carbon – C), 10% Sulfur (S)

  2. Pyrotechnic Stars: A mixture of metal salts for color, a fuel and an oxidizer. As an example:

    • Red: Strontium Carbonate (SrCO3) for color, with a fuel and oxidizer.
    • Green: Barium Chloride (BaCl2) for color, with a fuel and oxidizer.
    • Blue: Copper Chloride (CuCl2) for color, with a fuel and oxidizer.

  3. Delay Composition: 62% Potassium Nitrate (KNO3), 18% Sulfur (S), 20% Carbon (C)

  4. Fuse (Ignition Fuse): Usually made from a thin paper or string tube filled with black powder which has the same composition as the lifting charge: 75% Potassium Nitrate (KNO3), 15% Charcoal (Carbon – C), and 10% Sulfur (S).

Please note that the specific compositions can vary based on the desired effects and colors. Always remember that handling these substances can be extremely dangerous and should only be done by trained professionals.

The delay composition in a Roman candle is typically made up of 62% potassium nitrate (KNO3), 18% sulfur (S), and 20% carbon (C).

This composition serves a crucial role in the functioning of a Roman candle. After a star is ignited and propelled into the sky, there needs to be a pause before the next star is launched. This is where the delay composition comes in. It is designed to burn slowly, creating a timed delay between the ignition of one star and the next.

Without this delay, all the stars would ignite at once, which could lead to a dangerous explosion and would not create the desired visual effect of individual stars shooting out one after the other. The delay composition ensures that the stars are launched sequentially, creating the characteristic effect of a Roman candle.

A typical Roman candle can have anywhere between 5 to 10 shots, although this can vary. Some smaller Roman candles might only have 3 shots, while larger, more elaborate ones could have up to 20 shots or more. The number of shots in a Roman candle depends on its size, design, and the specific effects it is intended to produce. Each shot corresponds to a single burst of colored sparks or stars, which are ignited and launched into the air one at a time.

The height to which a Roman candle can launch its projectiles, or “stars,” largely depends on the size and design of the firework. However, on average, a Roman candle can shoot its stars to heights ranging from 20 to 40 feet (approximately 6 to 12 meters). Larger commercial-grade Roman candles used in professional firework displays can launch their projectiles much higher, sometimes reaching several hundred feet in the air. Always remember to use fireworks responsibly and maintain a safe distance when observing them.

Roman candles can produce a wide variety of colors and effects. The colors are achieved by adding specific metal salts to the pyrotechnic stars. For instance:

  • Red: Strontium salts
  • Green: Barium salts
  • Blue: Copper salts
  • Yellow: Sodium salts
  • White: Aluminum or magnesium powders
  • Gold: Charcoal, iron, or lampblack

In addition to these basic colors, combinations of different metal salts can be used to create a spectrum of hues.

As for effects, the Roman candle can eject single or multiple stars, which may explode, crackle, or twinkle, depending on the composition of the star. Some Roman candles may also include a “report” (a loud noise), a tail effect (a trail of sparks), or a comet (a single, large, brightly lit star).

The variety and complexity of effects largely depend on the design and construction of the Roman candle. However, they all work on the same basic principle: a delayed fuse ignites each pyrotechnic star in turn, propelling it out of the tube and into the air.

No, Roman candles should never be used indoors. They are designed for outdoor use only. When ignited, Roman candles eject flaming particles or “stars” that can reach significant heights and create a substantial amount of heat and sparks. This poses a serious risk of fire if they are used indoors or near flammable materials. Additionally, the smoke and fumes produced by Roman candles can be harmful if inhaled in an enclosed space. Always ensure to use fireworks responsibly, follow all safety instructions, and maintain a safe distance when observing them.

Roman candles are a type of firework that can vary in duration depending on their size and the number of shots they contain. On average, a Roman candle lasts between 20 to 30 seconds. This is the time it takes for all the shots or “stars” to be ignited and launched into the air one after the other.

However, this can vary. Some smaller Roman candles might last only a few seconds, while larger ones with more shots could last up to a minute or more. It’s important to note that once a Roman candle starts firing, it will continue until all the shots have been exhausted. So, it’s crucial to handle them with care and follow all safety guidelines.

Roman candles, like other types of fireworks, are regulated at the state level in the United States. The legality of using or possessing them can vary greatly from one state to another. Some states allow all types of consumer fireworks, including Roman candles. Others only permit certain kinds of “safe and sane” fireworks, while a few states ban consumer fireworks entirely.

According to the information available, it appears that items such as firecrackers, Roman candles, and skyrockets are often considered prohibited fireworks in many states. For example, three states — Illinois, Ohio, and Vermont — permit the use of only wire or wood stick sparklers and other novelties.

However, these laws change frequently and can also differ at the local level, so it’s crucial to check with your local law enforcement agency or fire department for the most accurate, up-to-date information. Always ensure you’re following all state and local laws when purchasing and using any kind of fireworks.

Roman candles, while often a popular choice for firework displays, do carry potential dangers and can cause damage if not used properly. Here are some key points to consider:

  1. Fire Hazards: Roman candles eject flaming balls or “stars” at a high velocity. If these land on flammable materials such as dry grass, trees, or buildings, they can easily start fires.

  2. Injuries: According to various sources, including an article on the Chicago Fireworks website, Roman candles caused 400 injuries in 2018 alone, particularly to people’s eyes. Injuries can also occur if the Roman candle is held incorrectly or malfunctions, causing burns or physical harm from the ejected stars.

  3. Malfunctions: Roman candles have been known to malfunction, as noted on the Wikipedia page for Roman candles. They are banned in some countries due to this tendency, which can lead to unexpected explosions or misfires.

  4. Illegal Use: In many places, using Roman candles and other types of fireworks is illegal without a proper permit. Illegal use can lead to fines or other legal consequences.

  5. Noise Pollution: The loud explosions caused by Roman candles can be disturbing to people and pets, and in some cases, may violate local noise ordinances.

  6. Environmental Impact: The remnants of Roman candles, like other fireworks, can litter the ground and potentially harm wildlife. Additionally, the smoke and chemicals released can contribute to air pollution.

Given these potential dangers and damages, it’s crucial to use Roman candles responsibly, follow all safety instructions, and comply with local laws and regulations.

Dealing with a malfunctioning or non-igniting Roman candle can be dangerous if not handled correctly. Here are some safety measures and steps to follow:

  1. Do Not Attempt to Relight: If a Roman candle fails to ignite, do not try to relight it. The firework could still be live and potentially explode unexpectedly.

  2. Wait and Observe: After an unsuccessful ignition, maintain a safe distance and wait for at least 20 minutes. Sometimes, the fuse might be slow to ignite.

  3. Douse with Water: After waiting, douse the Roman candle thoroughly with water. This will ensure that it is completely extinguished and cannot accidentally ignite later.

  4. Dispose of Properly: Once the Roman candle has been soaked with water, dispose of it properly. Check your local regulations for the best way to dispose of used or failed fireworks.

  5. Safety Gear: Always wear safety glasses and gloves when handling fireworks, including Roman candles.

  6. Follow Instructions: Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions when using any firework.

  7. Professional Help: If a Roman candle or any other firework appears defective or behaves unusually, contact professionals or your local fire department for assistance.

  8. Never Hold a Lit Roman Candle: Holding a lit Roman candle can lead to severe injury if it malfunctions. Always place it securely on the ground, pointing away from people, animals, and flammable objects.

Remember, fireworks are not toys and should be handled with extreme caution. Always prioritize safety over spectacle.

Disposing of used Roman candles or other fireworks should be done in a safe and responsible manner. Here are some general steps to follow according to various sources:

  1. Soak in Water: The first step is to soak the used fireworks thoroughly in a bucket of water. It’s recommended to leave them soaking overnight to ensure they’re completely extinguished and won’t pose a fire hazard.

  2. Double Bag: After soaking, you should double-bag the fireworks in plastic bags to prevent any remaining residues from leaking out.

  3. Dispose in Regular Trash: You can then dispose of these bagged fireworks in your regular household garbage, according to the guidelines provided by the Solid Waste Authority.

  4. Never Recycle: Fireworks are not recyclable and should never be placed in your recycling bin.

  5. Unused Fireworks: If you have unused fireworks, they should also be soaked in water and double-bagged before disposal. Some local waste facilities may accept unused fireworks, but you should check with them first.

Please note that these are general instructions and local regulations may vary. Always check with your local waste facility or fire department if you’re unsure about the correct disposal methods in your area.

There are several types of fireworks that produce effects similar to Roman candles. Here are a few alternatives you might consider:

  1. Cakes or Barrages: These are fireworks that fire multiple shots, much like a Roman candle. However, they often have a wider variety of effects and colors, and the shots can be fired at different angles and speeds. This makes the display more diverse and exciting.

  2. Mines: Mines are a type of firework that fires a cluster of ‘stars’ directly up into the air from a ground-based tube, similar to a Roman candle. The difference is that while a Roman candle fires one star at a time, a mine fires all its stars at once for a single, spectacular burst.

  3. Comets: Comets are similar to the ‘stars’ fired by Roman candles, but they are usually larger and can be fired from a variety of different fireworks, not just Roman candles. They leave a trail of sparks behind them as they ascend, creating a beautiful effect.

  4. Fountains: Fountains don’t launch projectiles into the air like a Roman candle, but they do create a similar visual effect. They emit showers of sparks upwards from a central point, often in multiple colors and stages.

  5. Single Shot Tubes: These are similar to Roman candles in that they shoot a single effect into the sky, but unlike a Roman candle, they only shoot once. The effects can range from a simple star or comet to more complex effects like brocades or chrysanthemums.

  6. Multi-shot Aerials: Also known as repeaters, these fireworks shoot multiple charges from a single tube, much like a Roman candle. The difference is that they often contain a variety of effects and colors, making them a more diverse choice.

Remember, regardless of the type of firework you choose, safety should always be your top priority. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions and local laws when using fireworks.

While there are instructions available online on how to make Roman candles at home, it’s important to note that manufacturing your own fireworks is not only dangerous but also illegal without the proper licensing in many places. The process involves handling potentially explosive materials and can result in serious injury or property damage if something goes wrong.

Professional firework manufacturers have extensive training and follow strict safety regulations to mitigate these risks. As a non-professional, it’s highly recommended to enjoy fireworks by purchasing them from a reputable retailer and using them responsibly, rather than attempting to make your own.

If you’re interested in the science behind fireworks or want to create a similar spectacle, consider safer alternatives such as making a homemade lava lamp or creating a colorful chemical garden. These can be fun, educational, and much less risky than trying to make your own fireworks. Always prioritize safety when handling any substances or reactions that could potentially be hazardous.

For optimal performance from your roman candle machine gun assembly, focus on these key configuration factors:

• Muzzle diameter – A larger muzzle diameter generally produces a more powerful and intense fireworks effect. For most roman candle gatling gun assemblies, an outer casing tube between 80mm and 120mm works well.

• Frequency of roman candles – The timing between each roman candle firing affects the rhythm and pace of the overall firework symphony. Experiment to find the interval that matches your aesthetic goals.

• Number of roman candle tubes – More tubes translate to more pellets exploding simultaneously, but manageability may become an issue above 10 tubes. Start with 3-8 tubes for your first assembly.

• Module positioning – The layout and angles of the roman candle tubes within the outer casing determine the shape and spread of the combined firework effect. Take time to test different arrangements.

Other factors to optimize include the inner diameter of ring mounts for a secure grip on tubes, the length of anchor modules for stability, and the tightness of joints to minimize vibrations during firing.

However, the best configuration ultimately depends on your specific requirements for the roman candle gatling gun’s intended use case and desired fireworks display outcomes. Testing multiple prototype assemblies with variations in the above parameters will help you dial in the ideal specifications for your purposes.

Want to know more about more about this, please check “How to make roman candle gatling gun“.

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