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Paper Property Optimization in Scarlet Ground Firecracker Manufacturing

Paper Property Optimization in Scarlet Ground Firecracker Manufacturing

Table of Contents


    The fireworks industry is one of Hunan Province’s most remarkable industries, yet also the riskiest. Every year accidents occur due to using and storing inferior firecracker materials. Mandi Red Fireworks are among the most popular varieties – with paper wrapping their outermost layer for spectacular visual displays during celebrations. This article emphasizes how we can bolster the physical strength of this highest layer by examining current research and potential technical advancements to reduce these hazardous risks associated with fireworks in Hunan Province.


    Scarlet Ground Firecracker Paper; Physical Properties; Process Parameters

    Overview of Paper for Fireworks and Firecrackers

    Fireworks require a combination of critical elements – chemicals, paper, clay, and plastic. The paper is essential in fireworks’ appearance, ignition effect, and overall quality and safety. It is also one of the most cost-effective materials available to manufacturers [1]. Table 1 further outlines how various types of papers are used for different fireworks products.

    Table 1: Uses of Different Papers for Fireworks and Firecrackers

    Paper TypeUse
    Cowhide paperManufacture of fireworks and firecracker tubes or tube shell layers
    Corrugated base paperMaking various specifications of flower tube shells
    Striped cowhide paperMaking whistling sound tube shells
    Box cardboardManufacture of corrugated paperboard
    Yellow cardboardBottom board and box for fireworks and firecrackers
    Glassine paperOuter shell packaging
    Red electro-optic paperPackaging for firecrackers and pasting at the mouth of fireworks and firecracker tubes
    Copperplate paperColorful patterns of fireworks and firecracker packaging or product trademarks
    Wax paperPackaging for firecrackers and pasting at the mouth of fireworks and firecracker tubes
    Fuse paperUsed for winding fuses
    Asphalt moisture-proof paperUsed for packaging fireworks and firecrackers for transportation
    people in white uniform holding green stick during daytime

    Physical properties of the paper used for Scarlet Ground Firecracker

    To be successful in the production of fireworks, the paper must meet specific standards. It should possess high physical strength and low relative density for molding purposes–for easy cutting, binding, and curling. Furthermore, it should have an economical cost to ensure profitability. The main technical indexes required for a firework paper are weight, tightness coefficient (index), tensile strength (index), water absorption rate, and delivered moisture levels, which can all be found in GB/T 22928-2008 Table 2.

    Generally, tighter materials lead to better mechanical indicators such as breakage and tensile strength. The latter is the maximum force a paper or cardboard can take before breaking; therefore, higher values indicate more stability when setting off fireworks. One should look for products with high tensile strengths to ensure safety during discharge.

    When the water absorption value is elevated, it leads to weakened moisture resistance and thus makes fireworks more vulnerable to humidity. This can minimize their efficacy while posing potential health risks [3].

    Basis weight /(g/m2)40.0±2.0, 50.0±2.5
    Bulk density /(g/cm2)≥ 0.55
    Tensile strength index Longitudinal /[(N·m)·g-1]≥ 52.0
    Tensile strength index Transverse /[(N·m)·g-1]≥ 21.0
    Water absorption (both sides) /(g/m2)≤ 30.0
    Moisture content of delivery /%6.0±2.0

    The paper utilized for Mandihong Fireworks’ outer layer has a transverse tensile index of around 5N-m/g and a longitudinal tensile index of 12N-m/g, significantly weaker than the standard strength requirements.

    Strict regulations apply to producing fireworks paper, especially for the outermost layer made with Scarlet Ground Firecracker. Such demanding standards are too much for this weak layer not designed to endure pyrotechnic shock.

    Scarlet Ground Firecracker paper must have specific mechanical properties to ensure safety and production efficiency. Fortunately, these physical characteristics can be enhanced by altering the pulp ratio and filler dosage and incorporating additives – all of which combined helps to keep costs down while maintaining a high level of security performance.

    Methods to improve the physical properties of Scarlet Ground Firecracker paper for fireworks

    4.1 Change the ratio of raw materials

    An array of variables, such as fiber length and width, cell wall thickness, cavity diameter, fine fiber composition and the microscopically intricate nature of fibers all contribute to determining a paper’s structural robustness. Notably, more muscular individual fibers can grant papers greater tensile strength.

    • Northwood’s sublime pulping can be attributed to their use of cedar fibers, which are incredibly thin and compressible. By maximizing the contact area between each fiber, they have achieved an impressive bond strength that is unparalleled in the industry.
    • Eucalyptus pulp offers an unparalleled combination of longevity, breathability, and opacity that makes it the perfect option for any paper production needs.
    • Pulping birch pulp is an incredibly cost-efficient approach, resulting in a reduction of pulping costs that can reach as high as $15 per ton – quite the impressive saving! [4-5].
    • After researching the physical properties of paper that had been through bagasse expansion, Wang Shuangfei and their team uncovered an astonishingly powerful result. [6]

    Aiming to increase its strength while maintaining a competitive cost, we have considered using white-edged paper mixed with commercial wood pulp. Bagasse pulp can be another Scarlet Ground Firecracker fireworks paper production resource. Table 3 presents fiber morphology data derived from three types of broadleaf pulps following thinning [4].

    Fiber Morphology DataBirch PulpPoplar-Aspen Blend PulpEucalyptus Pulp
    Fiber ComponentBirchBirch + PoplarEucalyptus
    Average Fiber Length in Paper /mm0.850.9480.649
    Average Fiber Width in Paper /μm2121.616.8
    Fiber Wall Thickness /μm4.65.32.6
    Fiber Curl /%14.412.317.9
    Fiber Cross-sectional Area /μm278.8311.1166.2
    4.2 Change the type and amount of filler

    For producing top-notch copies, it is absolutely essential to incorporate filler into the paper pulp. Ground calcium carbonate, kaolin, calcined kaolin and talc are the optimal choices when selecting a filler material.

    By introducing fillers to paper, the space between fibers increases and bridges are built that bind them together – resulting in a greater structure strength. Yet too much filler can lead to weakened material! To help you out, here is some specific particle size information for reference (Table 4).

    Filler NameAverage Particle Size (μm)
    Kaolin0.2 – 2.0
    Calcined Kaolin0.7 – 1.5
    Heavy Calcium Carbonate0.7 – 3.0
    Precipitated Calcium Carbonate0.3 – 3.0
    Titanium Dioxide0.2 – 0.4
    Talcum Powder1.5 – 10.0

    In response to recent government-mandated regulations on importing and exporting waste paper, the cost of pulp has been steadily climbing. Market prices for pulp fall between 2000 – 4000 RMB/t while filler stands at 1000 RMB/t.

    Research has indicated that of the three fillers, heavy calcium carbonate is most effective in enhancing paper’s physical properties when followed by talc and light calcium carbonate, respectively [9].

    The evidence suggests that replacing some pulp fibers with lower-cost fillers, such as heavy calcium carbonate or talc, is recommended to maintain mechanical strength. The volume of fillers used should be between 25-35%.

    4.3 Change the type and amount of additives

    Our ultimate goal is to boost the web retention of pulp, heighten water filtration and thereby increase paper production. This will not only cut down energy consumption but also make photocopying easier. Adding 1-2% of the total paper can help us achieve this reported aim [10].

    Experimental evidence has shown that the addition of 2% cationic starch (CS), 0.04% cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM), 0.005% anionic organic micro polymer (CPS), 20% precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), and 0.15 % alkyl ketone dimer(AKD) in medium substitution degree leads to a significant increase in filler retention rate, from 10,8 to 12,2%, as well as tensile index which went up from 21,6 N-m/g to 22.2 N-m/g.

    After elevating the bentonite content to 2%, CPAM concentration to 0.04%, CPS level to 0.025%, PCC proportion of 20%, and AKD value at 0.15%, researchers noted a considerable improvement in filler retention from 9.0% up to 10.3%. Furthermore, the tensile index increased from 23.4 N-m/g to 27.6 N-m/g [11].

    With a binary retention system, particles can be retained to increase the filler’s holding rate. Yet particulate retention systems are superior in reinforcing paper tensile strength compared to their counterpart; thus, they should be considered when making firework papers for optimal results.


    Despite the GB/T 22928-2008 standard applying to fireworks paper, it is primarily designed for firework rolls. Unfortunately, this makes meeting the strength requirement of the Scarlet Ground Firecracker fireworks essay outermost layer especially challenging due to its lack of pyrotechnic resistance.

    As a result, regulations concerning the outermost layer of the paper are necessary to ensure that fireworks products maintain their quality and safety. Furthermore, research is now focused on reducing production costs while guaranteeing that users can enjoy secure fireworks displays.

    Wrapping up

    Fireworks paper production combines pulps, fillers, and additives to ensure that fireworks products meet safety and quality requirements. Researching filler particle size data, adjusting the type and amount of additives used, and pyrotechnic regulations are all essential when manufacturing this unique paper form. To equip your business with the necessary production tools for top-notch firework paper, check out PyroEquip’s extensive selection of firework products manufacturing equipment. We guarantee that you will be satisfied!

    For more information on our range of products and services, please visit or email us at We look forward to hearing from you soon!




    pink and white fireworks display during nighttime

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