Are you looking for an explosive solution for your fireworks production needs? It’s the most requested content shortly for fireworks industry proces. Fireworks and firecrackers are inherently dangerous, making them a high-risk manufacturing industry. But with the right technology of Fireworks Automatic Production, you can improve safety, reduce costs, and increase efficiency.
China’s government authorities are actively promoting industry upgrades and product innovation to accelerate the modernization of fireworks starburst and firecracker production and management units. And now, you can take advantage of cutting-edge technology to achieve the goal of “factorization, standardization, mechanization, technological innovation, and intensification” for your production system.
- Achieve human-drug separation
- Human-machine isolation
- Remote control accessing
- Greatly enhance automation level and safety production
Our solution reduces the risks of casualties and economic losses while promoting the development of the fireworks and firecrackers industry. By enhancing China’s competitiveness in accessing the world market for pyrotechnics and firecrackers products, you can achieve greater success and profitability.
1.1 Introduction – Fireworks Automatic Production
As one of the four ancient civilizations, China boasts a splendid and profound culture and history. Fireworks, one of the four great inventions of ancient China, have played an important role in history. Lighting fireworks is a folk activity that has been carried on from ancient times to the present day. It embodies people’s desire for a happy life and the wish to ward off evil and disaster. It is a folk way for people to welcome the future and pray for good luck, representing their pursuit of joy, peace, and good fortune. It is deeply loved by people. Under the influence of Chinese culture, other countries in the world also have a great love for fireworks, making the artistic products of this explosive material more widely spread and promoting China to become a major producer, consumer, and exporter of fireworks.
According to incomplete statistics, in 2013, there were more than 4,500 pyrotechnics production enterprises and approximately 140,000 sales enterprises nationwide in China. The number of employees in the fireworks industry was approximately 1.5 million, and the annual output value of the fireworks industry was about 55 billion yuan. The total value of exports was about 7 billion yuan, accounting for about 75% of the world’s total production of similar products . However, fireworks are the main component of fireworks, and fireworks are a typical energetic material, which makes fireworks highly flammable and explosive. During production, transportation, storage, and ignition, if accidental energy is stimulated, it can lead to combustion and explosion accidents, causing casualties and property losses. In January 2016 alone, China experienced a series of major fireworks explosions, including the “1.14” pyrotechnics explosion in Tongxu, Kaifeng, Henan, the illegal firework starbursts production and explosion in Ma’anshan, Anhui on January 15th, and the large-scale fireworks explosion in Guangfeng, Shangrao, Jiangxi on January 20th, causing significant loss of life and property . The sensitive overall performance of fireworks amplifies the possibility of accidents caused by operators’ violation of regulations, the use of non-standard equipment, and unexpected situations during production.
The fireworks industry in our country is currently in a transitional period from manual workshop-style operations to mechanized production. Processes such as paper cutting, paper rolling, clay filling, and clay pressing are mostly done manually or using simple single machines to redirect, while more dangerous processes such as weighing and filling drugs, and granulation are mostly done manually. At the same time, each procedure is independent and the logistics between processes are handled manually [3-4]. There are many problems in production, such as the mixed operation of humans and machines, missing online quality checking and control, poor product consistency, low level of automation, and low production efficiency. Therefore, the fireworks industry urgently needs safe, redirect system, efficient, and reliable fireworks machinery and automated production lines.
The rise of fireworks abroad is all thanks to our country for a positive redirect. For a long period of time, the production of foreign fireworks was basically the same as that in our country. With the rapid development of foreign industrial technology in modern times, advanced production processes have been adopted in foreign fireworks production. Some dangerous processes such as filling up and pressing drugs have been mechanized and unmanned, with a very high level of automation, and there is almost no occurrence of casualties. In some important processes, such as the drying of firework powders, far-infrared drying technology or vacuum drying technology has been used, while our country is falling behind in this technology and efficiency is low. Therefore, it can be seen that there is still a gap in the level of technology between the production of fireworks in our country and that of foreign countries.
Wait a while! Fireworks and firecrackers are a high-risk manufacturing industry. Chinese government authorities are promoting industry upgrades and product innovation to achieve “factorization, standardization, mechanization, technological innovation, and intensification” goals. This study proposes an automated solution for firework starbursts production, which involves a large amount of gunpowder and is mainly completed manually. The automated production line browser for fireworks’ “Firework Starbursts” achieves human-drug separation, human-machine isolation, remote control, and enhances the automation level and safety production. But wait, it promotes the development of the fireworks and firecrackers industry and enhances China’s competitiveness in the world market.
1.2 Manufacturing Procedure of Firework Sparklers
The fireworks and firecracker industry consists of 12 processes and 72 procedures, making it a typical labor-intensive industry. If production is carried out solely by manual labor, it will lead to problems such as high labor intensity, poor working conditions, and low efficiency. Among these processes, the production of firework sparklers poses significant safety risks. The current manufacturing prod for sparklers in fireworks and firecracker production factories includes weighing, crushing and mixing, granulation, sieving and crushing, and drying. Although the crushing and mixing has been mechanized, all other procedures are still completed by manual labor, resulting in a low safety factor for sparkler production. The main problems and hidden dangers of sparkler production are:
- There are many types of ingredients, and the manual weighing is prone to mistakes or measurement errors due to fatigue from continuous work, ultimately affecting the fireworks’ display effect.
- There is material waste due to human error resulting in the untimely handling of broken large-sized bright pearls, which not only wastes raw materials but also increases safety hazards in fireworks processing.
- The level of mechanization (automatic browser) is low, and the technological content (requested content shortly) of the existing pharmaceutical machinery and equipment needs to be improved. These machines have issues such as large size, heavy weight, loud noise during production, and imprecise power transmission.
- The consistency of product quality is poor, which ultimately affects the quality of fireworks.
- Each proceeding is independent of one another, there are many workshops, and there are many transportation links, leading to a large occupied area.
1.3 Research Status at Home and Abroad
1.3.1 Research Status of Safety Performance of Fireworks and Explosives
During the production, transportation, and use of fireworks and explosives, they are often subject to mechanical impacts, friction, and other factors, which are one of the main causes of explosion accidents. There are many factors that affect the mechanical sensitivity of fireworks and explosives. Measuring the mechanical sensitivity of fireworks and explosives is of great significance for evaluating their safety during production, transportation, and use.
Jiang Xibo, Chen Liping, and others  used HGZ-type impact sensitivity tester and MGY-1 pendulum friction tester to test the impact sensitivity and friction sensitivity of four types of propellants, KNO3 / S, KNO3 / MgAl, KClO4 / MgAl, and KClO3 / Al at 30°C, 45°C, and 60°C. They explained the relationship between temperature and sensitivity of different propellants. The experimental results are shown in Figures 1.1 and 1.2.
Fireworks Automatic Production
Tan Aixi, Zhang Guanghui  analyzed the influence of factors such as temperature, humidity, and particle size on the mechanical sensitivity of fireworks and firecracker pyrotechnic compositions. The experiment used CGY-1 mechanical impact sensitivity tester and MGY-1 friction sensitivity tester to measure the mechanical sensitivity of three types of pyrotechnic compositions, namely firecrackers, sparklers, and aerial shells, at a humidity of 70% and temperatures ranging from 20 to 60°C; the mechanical sensitivity of detonators at 25°C and humidity of 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%; and the impact sensitivity of 80 mesh, 100 mesh, and 120 mesh sparklers. The experimental results showed that the mechanical sensitivity of pyrotechnic compositions increased with the increase of temperature. The mechanical sensitivity of compositions without metal powder decreased with increasing humidity, while the mechanical sensitivity of pyrotechnic compositions containing metal powder decreased with increasing humidity within a certain range of humidity. The mechanical sensitivity of the compositions increased with decreasing particle size.
Liu Hongyan proposed preventive measures for chemical energy by analyzing the reasons and mechanisms for its formation:
Firstly, in the wet method of preparing pyrotechnic agents, solvents with 94% or more ethanol or water-free organic substances are used.
Secondly, low-temperature production is employed and controlled over a browser. During the wet method preparation or shaping of the agents, heat dissipation treatment is conducted (the raw materials or solvents are first frozen or cooled with air conditioning, etc.) to prevent heat accumulation and suppress the formation of chemical energy.
Ouyang D, Pan G, and others used differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and explosion ball experiments to analyze the thermal performance and combustion characteristics of KClO4/Mg-50%Al and KClO4/Mg-50%Al with additives such as nitrocellulose (NC) and guanidine nitrate (GN). The experimental results showed that the ignition temperature of the mixture was in the order of KClO4/Mg-50%Al/GN (553.6℃) > KClO4/Mg-50%Al (538.8℃) > KClO4/Mg-50%Al/NC (536.5℃); the ignition delay time of the mixture was KClO4/Mg-50%Al > KClO4/Mg-50%Al/GN > KClO4/Mg-50%Al/NC.
Fathollahi and others studied pyrotechnic agents such as Al + KClO4, Mg + KClO4, Al + Mg + KClO4, MgAl + KClO4, and Al + MgAl + KClO4.
The thermal and kinetic properties of pyrotechnic agents were described using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis to study their reaction processes. The experimental results showed that the optimal baseline values were dependent on the storage and operation methods of pyrotechnic agents containing Mg, Al, and KClO4.
1.3.2 Current Status of Pyrotechnic Preparation Research
126.96.36.199 Current Status of Mechanical Equipment Research
Chinese fireworks processing technology has been improving, and most companies have now achieved mechanization or semi-mechanization. Currently, it is common to use wire machines to manufacture fuses, die-casting machines to shell casings for fireworks, and rolling machines to roll paper tubes. The mechanization and semi-mechanization equipment for mixing pyrotechnic agents are currently under development, as shown in Figures 1.3 and 1.4.
Figure 1.3: Autonomous Fuse Insertion Machine Diagram
Figure 1.4: Fireworks Rolling Machine
Li G, Zhang J, Xia W, and others designed a computer-controlled small-scale precision metal powder automated weighing device. The device uses a vertical screw feeder for automated feeding and pulse width modulation (PWM) to control the feeding speed. The metal powder in the storage hopper is sent to the weighing hopper, and the sensor connected to the weighing hopper converts the weighing signal into voltage sampling data, which is sent to the computer system for analysis through an amplifier and an A/D converter. The feeding, discharge, and mold transfer are controlled based on the difference between the planned value and the current value. If the value is accurate, the control transfer mechanism sends the mold to the bottom of the electronic control discharge valve, and then the valve is opened to the maximum, allowing the metal powder to be quickly discharged into the mold. When the weight of the metal powder in the weighing hopper exceeds the target weight, a small opening is opened to control the discharge valve to discharge excess metal powder.
Ma Xiaona, Tang Duyou, Chen Tiejun, and others used two methods, S7-200CPU + EM231 analog input module, and S7-200 CPU + SIWAREX MS weighing module, to achieve the automation control of loading the weighing module.
Dong Chunliang  and John Bridgwater  analyzed the requirements for powder mixing and the working principles of mixing equipment, and explained the mechanism, randomness, and factors affecting mixing. The rotary mixer operates under slip friction when the material is rotated at the lower limit speed, and under impact friction when rotated at the upper limit speed. The fixed mixer is effective for mixing materials with high humidity and adhesion. The double cone mixer is designed based on the gravity slip friction movement, the V-type mixer is designed based on the falling impact friction movement, the hinge-type propeller mixer is designed based on the principle of revolution, and the paddle mixer relies on the rotation of the paddle to forcefully shear and mix the materials.
Jiang Maoqiang  used the discrete element method to study the flow and mixing characteristics of particles inside the double cone mixer and examined the mixing effect of internal components in the drum mixer and double cone mixer. In the drum mixer, ” – “, “+”, and “*” shaped baffles were respectively set to increase the mixing between particles. The motion and mixing of the particle system were numerically simulated using the discrete element method. The results showed that setting an appropriately sized “+ ” shaped baffle was the best option for mixing. In the double cone mixer, “+ ” and “+ ” tilted baffles were respectively set, and the simulation results showed that the separation of particles inside the double cone mixer was eliminated after setting the “+ ” shaped baffle.
Fang Haozhou and Zhang Bo from the Ammunition Automated Loading Technology Research and Application Center of the 58th Institute of China Ordnance Industry proposed the technology for preparing and launching explosives and detonators using a drum. Each component of the drug is autonomously weighed according to the ratio through an pre-programmed weighing device, poured into a feeding hopper, and then mixed in the mixing drum. After the mixing time is reached, the explosion-proof motor drives the mixing drum to rotate in reverse, pouring out all the mixed drugs. The mixing machine uses a PLC controller and a frequency converter to control the speed, rotation time, and forward and reverse rotation of the explosion-proof motor. The mixing machine is placed in a sealed explosion-proof room and filled with inert gas to achieve human-machine isolation operation. This technology achieves the pre-programmed mixing and dispensing of pyrotechnic drugs, ensuring uniform mixing of drugs, precise ratio, and achieving human-machine isolation and unmanned production. It has been applied to the self-activating loading and assembly production line of double-bang cannon.
Wang Chunfang and others from Zhejiang Province Chemical Research Institute designed a new type of bottom-driven conical mixer for checking purposes, whose structure is shown in Figure 1.5. The structure and working principle of the mixer are similar to those of a common double-screw conical mixer, which uses the revolution and rotation of the screw shaft to achieve sufficient mixing of the materials. The transmission device of the machine is divided into upper and lower parts. The reduction gear on the cover drives the stirring shaft to rotate, and the bevel gear turbine reduction gear at the bottom of the machine body drives the stirring shaft to revolve; the sealing device is composed of a labyrinth, compressed air, and multiple oil seals. The new bottom-driven conical mixer improves the problem of leakage affecting the quality of materials in the traditional conical mixer transmission system above the material and has better adaptability for thermosensitive materials.
Figure 1.5: Structure of Double Screw Conical Mixer
Chen Dongsheng, Feng Fuhai  and others studied the motion and force of particles in a disc and the relationship between the speed and inclination angle of the disc granulator. Liu Xiaowen  developed a firework disc granulator and analyzed the impact of four factors on the quality of microspheres through single-factor experiments, which include the atomizing pressure and flow rate of the binder, the feeding rate, the distance between the nozzle of the hopper and the outlet, and the polishing time. For checking, they also conducted an orthogonal experiment to determine the optimal system parameters for granulation. The granulator, designed for producing 5kg of firework microspheres with a target particle size of 10mm, is shown in Figure 1.6. The granulation disc has a volume of 35L, an inclination angle of 45˚, a speed of 18r/min, a copper-plated surface (to prevent sparks and static electricity), a rubber scraper (to avoid significant extrusion pressure on the firework powder), and structure components with a high-performance anti-corrosion coating that works in seconds.
Figure 1.6: Overall Structure of Fireworks Granulation” from a Master’s thesis at Beijing Institute of Technology.
188.8.131.52 Research Status of Control Systems
Zhong Shunjin and Zhu Quansong  from the Ammunition Loading Research Application Center of the 58th Research Institute of China Ordnance Industries proposed a fireworks production control system with PLC control technology as its core. The control system structure is shown in Figure 1.7. The firework starbursts production control system mainly includes an automation control system and a WinCC monitoring system. The automation control system is composed of a Siemens CPU314-2PN/DP, an S7-300 remote I/O control station, and an Advantech industrial computer. The control system uses PLC for the logic control of the entire system. The Advantech industrial computer is used for human-machine interaction to achieve functions such as parameter setting, parameter and output display, and fault prompt (show errors in seconds). Explosion-proof stepper motors, explosion-proof asynchronous motors, and browser cylinders are used as the field execution components, and proximity switches and fiber optic sensors are used to trigger position signals. This system has been successfully applied to a project in Hunan, achieving reliable, efficient, and continuous self-production, significantly reducing the number of online operators (through browser in seconds), and improving safety and reliability.
Figure 1.7: Control System Structure Diagram
Sun Yongfei  developed a prototype of an automatic assembly machine for spitball fireworks. He designed and developed an air-electric integrated control system composed of “PLC-sensor-pneumatic components” using a Mitsubishi FX2N-48MR programmable controller. He also created the sequence function chart and ladder diagram for the system. This control system realizes the specified actions and control requirements of the automatic assembly machine for spitball fireworks.
Zhou Chunwei  designed a control system for the drying and unloading of fireworks grains. He designed the control system hardware (using S7-200 PLC, EM223 digital input/output mixed module, and EM231 analog input module) and created electrical schematics and wiring diagrams for each module. He also designed the control system software (drying control system program design, unloading control system program design, and temperature alarm control system program design). This system realizes the automation of fireworks grain production.
184.108.40.206 Current Status of Safety Technology Research
Based on the current production and management status of fireworks in China, Nie Jianhong  studied the core issues of safety in fireworks production in China, analyzed the hazards of fireworks and the causes of accidents, and proposed targeted safety measures and suggestions from two perspectives: management and technology. The main reasons for the safety problems in fireworks production include: production companies lacking basic safety conditions; inadequate or incomplete safety prevention and monitoring measures; and low degree of mechanization. To improve safety protection measures, the technical level should focus on: improving safety protection measures (production and storage workshops should not be mixed or connected; installing anti-static facilities; controlling thermal energy, mechanical energy, and electrical energy; adding fences and fire isolation zones); and increasing safety monitoring facilities (video and parameter monitoring of production, storage workshops, and warehouses and setting reasonable safety alarm thresholds).
Huang Wu, Xia Yifeng  analyzed common safety hazards in the production of fireworks and proposed measures to reduce them. According to statistics from China’s safety supervision and management departments, nearly 95% of fireworks safety accidents occur during the production. In the production process of fireworks, basically more than 80% of safety accidents are caused by friction and collision. From the analysis of the elements of fireworks production, three major measures for improving the safety of agents and facilities, scientific layout and improving production structure, and scientific management and standardizing production are proposed.
Rajathilagam and his colleagues researched the causes of fireworks factory fires and explosions and the corresponding preventive measures. Statistics from 1994 to 2008 show that most of the casualties were male with an average age of 36. The analysis shows that unsafe behavior and conditions are the main causes of these accidents. Effective safety management (such as safety training and education) and strong technical measures (such as pre-programmed alarm systems, fire and protection systems, etc.) can effectively reduce the occurrence of accidents.
Yang Hulin  and his team analyzed the mechanism of electrostatic generation and its hazards, and introduced the electrostatic sensitivity and detection methods of some fire and chemical products, as well as the new electrostatic safety technologies commonly used in the fire and chemical industries. During processes such as mixing, loading, pressing, granulating, sieving, and drying, electrostatic accumulation is formed due to the friction, contact, and separation of the drug between each other and between the drug and the inner wall of the equipment, resulting in the transfer of electric charges. Electrostatic safety technologies for the above processes include: anti-static materials (such as conductive carbon black filled, metal wire mesh conductive rubber), grounding method, leak method (mainly referring to increasing environmental humidity), electrostatic shielding method, and electrostatic neutralization method (such as electrostatic eliminator to generate the necessary positive or negative ion clusters to eliminate static electricity, materials with different functional functions to eliminate static electricity), and so on.
1.4 Introduction and Research Significance of the Topic
Fireworks and firecrackers are highly flammable and explosive, making them a high-risk manufacturing industry. Various levels of government authorities in China are vigorously promoting industry upgrades and product innovation to accelerate the realization of the goal of “factorization, standardization, mechanization, technological innovation, and intensification” for fireworks and firecracker production and management units. This is in response to the “mechanization instead of labor, automation to reduce labor” scientific and technological security action proposed by the National Safety Supervision Bureau in 2015. This study focuses on the production process of fireworks and firecrackers, which involves a large amount of gunpowder and is mainly completed manually. The study aims to propose and evaluate an automated solution for the production of fireworks and firecrackers.
Production and development of an automated production line for fireworks’ “Firework Starbursts” will achieve human-drug separation, human-machine isolation, remote control, and greatly enhance the automation level and safety production of the “Firework Starbursts” production line. This not only reduces casualties and economic losses but also promotes the development of the fireworks and firecrackers industry, greatly enhancing China’s competitiveness in the world market for fireworks and firecrackers products.
The Importance of Automation and Innovation in China’s High-Risk Industry:
- The Dangerous Reality of Fireworks and Firecrackers Production
- China’s Government Efforts to Promote Industry Upgrades and Innovation
- The Urgency of Automation and Mechanization in Response to National Safety Supervision Bureau’s Scientific and Technological Security Action
- The Proposed Solution: An Automated Production Line for “Firework Starbursts” Fireworks
- Advantages of the Automated Production Line: Human-Drug Separation, Human-Machine Isolation, and Remote Control
- Significance of Enhanced Automation and Safety Production in the Fireworks and Firecrackers Industry
- Economic and Competitiveness Benefits for China’s Fireworks and Firecrackers Products
- The Potential Global Impact of China’s Innovation in Fireworks and Firecrackers Production
1.5 Main Research Content
This study designs an automated firework starbursts production. The design includes two major parts: mechanical system design and pre-programmed control system design, with the following specific contents (requested content shortly):
Mechanical system design: This includes the design of subsystems such as ingredient system, mixing system, granulating system, sieving and crushing system, conveying system, and so on. It specifically includes the design of equipment such as trained weighing scales, mixers, granulators, sieving machines, crushers, and safety interlock explosion-proof devices, and equipment safety design.
Control system design: This includes the design of subsystems such as ingredient system, mixing system, granulating system, sieving and crushing system, conveying system, temperature control alarm system, etc. It specifically involves scheme design, hardware design, and program design.
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